- Where suspicion fills the air and holds scholars in line for fear
of their jobs, there can be no exercise of the free intellect. . . .
A problem can no longer be pursued with impunity to its edges. Fear
stalks the classroom. The teacher is no longer a stimulant to adventurous
thinking; she becomes instead a pipe line for safe and sound information.
A deadening dogma takes the place of free inquiry. Instruction tends to
become sterile; pursuit of knowledge is discouraged; discussion often
leaves off where it should begin.
- Justice William O. Douglas,
United States Supreme Court:
Adler v. Board of Education, 1951